Journal articles

_Misc Articles

Sample article_note

Gollwitzer, Peter M., Sheeran, Paschal, Michalski, Verena & Seifert, Andrea (2009). When Intentions Go Public. Psychological Science, Vol. 20, No. 5, 612-18.

Abstract: Based on Lewinian goal theory in general and self-completion theory in particular, four experiments examined the implications of other people taking notice of one’s identity-related behavioral intentions (e.g., the intention to read law periodicals regularly to reach the identity goal of becoming a lawyer). Identity-related behavioral intentions that had been noticed by other people were translated into action less intensively than those that had been ignored (Studies 1–3). This effect was evident in the field (persistent striving over 1 week’s time; Study 1) and in the laboratory (jumping on opportunities to act; Studies 2 and 3), and it held among participants with strong but not weak commitment to the identity goal (Study 3). Study 4 showed, in addition, that when other people take notice of an individual’s identity-related behavioral intention, this gives the individual a premature sense of possessing the aspired-to identity.






Gollwitzer on implementation intentions

Gollwitzer, Peter (1999). Implementation Intentions: Strong Effects of Simple Plans.


Admiration retards achievement

Gollwitzer, Peter M., Sheeran, Paschal, Michalski, Verena & Seifert, Andrea (2009). When Intentions Go Public: Does Social Reality Widen the Intention-Behavior Gap?.


Positive fantasies lower energy and undermine achievement

Kappes, Heather Barry & Oettingen, Gabriele (2011). Positive fantasies about idealized futures sap energy.


Positive fantasies lower academic effort and prevent success

Kappes, Heather Barry & Oettingen, Gabriele (2012). Positive fantasies predict low academic achievement in disadvantaged students.


Sad mood increases success

Kappes, Heather Barry, Oettingen, Gabriele, Mayer, Doris & Maglio, Sam (2011). Sad mood promotes self-initiated mental contrasting of future and reality.


Watching others succeed undermines motivation

McCulloch, Kathleen, Fitzsimons, Gráinne, Chua, Sook Ning & Albarracin, Dolores (2011). Vicarious goal satiation.


Positive fantasies prevent weight loss

Oettingen, Gabriele & Wadden, Thomas A. (1991). Expectation, fantasy, and weight loss: Is the impact of positive thinking always positive?.


Implementation intentions facilitate retrieval of intentions in memory and reduce past-in-your-future

Orbell, Sheina, Hodgldns, Sarah & Sheeran, Paschal (1997). Implementation Intentions and the Theory of Planned Behavior.

Hurting others


You would rather make less money than see me make more than you

Bazerman, M. H., Loewenstein, G. F. & White, S. B. (1992). Reversals of Preference in Allocation Decisions: Judging an Alternative Versus Choosing Among Alternatives.


Money makes you happier only via higher rank

Boyce, C. J., Brown, G. & Moore, S. (2010). Money and Happiness: Rank of Income, Not Income, Affects Life Satisfaction.


Monkeys hate when neighbor gets more

Brosnan, S. F. & de Wall, F. (2003). Monkeys reject unequal pay.


You are happier when surrounded by the poor

Firebaugh, G. & Schroeder, M. (2009). Does Your Neighbor’s Income Affect Your Happiness?.


Wealthy neighbors decrease your happiness

Haushofer, J., Reisinger, J. & Shapiro, J. (2015). Your Gain Is My Pain: Negative Psychological Externalities of Cash Transfers.


You are happy to make less money if others make even less than you

Solnick, A. & Hemenway, D. (1998). Is more always better?: A survey on positional concerns.


My pain gives you biological euphoria

Takahashi, H., Kato, M., Matsuura, M., Mobbs, D., Suhara, T. & Okubo, Y. (2009). When your gain is my pain and your pain is my gain: neural correlates of envy and schadenfreude.


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